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火狐体育官网|一文看懂,直布罗陀为什么是英国的?



发布日期:2021-04-27 20:33:01 发布者:Admin5  点击率:

The Gibraltar Peninsula is located in the most southwestern corner of Europe, across the Strait of Gibraltar and the African continent. The Strait of Gibraltar is 58 kilometers long, and the narrowest point is only 14 kilometers, but its narrow body connects the Mediterranean and the Atlantic.

直布罗陀半岛位于欧洲最西南的一角,横跨直布罗陀海峡和非洲大陆。直布罗陀海峡长58公里,最窄处只有14公里,但其狭窄的主体连接地中海和大西洋。

Among the most important straits in Europe, the Strait of Gibraltar may be the most important one (base map from: shutterstock@Anton Balazh)▼

在欧洲最重要的海峡中,直布罗陀海峡可能是最重要的海峡(基础图来自:shutterstock @ Anton Balazh)▼

From the map, the Strait of Gibraltar appears to be the border between Spain and Morocco, a North African country. But in fact, the territorial ownership of the two sides of the strait and the outlying islands of the strait are complicated, including African cities belonging to Spain and islands belonging to North African countries. The most important of these is the Gibraltar Peninsula on the Spanish side, but its sovereignty belongs to the United Kingdom.

从地图上看,直布罗陀海峡似乎是西班牙和北非摩洛哥摩洛哥之间的边界。但实际上,海峡两岸和海峡外围岛屿的领土所有权很复杂,包括属于西班牙的非洲城市和属于北非国家的岛屿。其中最重要的是西班牙一侧的直布罗陀半岛,但其主权属于英国。

What kind of history is this?

这是什么样的历史?

The territorial ownership of the Strait of Gibraltar is complicated. On the Moroccan side there is Ceuta controlled by Spain, and on the Spanish side there is Gibraltar controlled by the United Kingdom (base map from: NASA)▼

直布罗陀海峡的领土所有权很复杂。在摩洛哥一侧,有由西班牙控制的休达(Ceuta),在西班牙一侧,有由英国控制的直布罗陀(基本地图来自:NASA)▼

The Mediterranean is the origin of the world's marine civilization. Early ancient Egypt, Cretan civilization, and Aegean civilization were all born along the Mediterranean coast.

地中海是世界海洋文明的起源。早期的古埃及,克里特岛文明和爱琴海文明都诞生于地中海沿岸。

In the 3rd century BC, the Roman Republic obtained hegemony on the Mediterranean coast through three Punic Wars, and finally formed a huge empire spanning three continents, Europe, Asia and Africa. The economic and cultural development of the Mediterranean and its coastal areas also flourished during this period. Until Columbus discovered the New World, the Mediterranean was the economic center of the Western world.

在公元前三世纪,罗马共和国通过三场布匿战争在地中海沿岸取得了霸权,并最终形成了横跨欧洲,亚洲和非洲三大洲的庞大帝国。在此期间,地中海及其沿海地区的经济和文化发展也蓬勃发展。在哥伦布发现新世界之前,地中海一直是西方世界的经济中心。

The early humans did not master mature ocean navigation technology. The Mediterranean with many peninsulas and harbors was very suitable for the development of early marine civilization. Before the era of great navigation, the Mediterranean was the most economically developed region in Europe for a long time (viewed horizontally)▼

早期人类没有掌握成熟的海洋导航技术。具有许多半岛和港口的地中海非常适合早期海洋文明的发展。在大航海时代之前,地中海长期以来一直是欧洲经济最发达的地区(横向看)▼

The great discoveries of western geography promoted the advent of the great nautical era, and the status of the Mediterranean coastal economic center quietly changed. The desire to explore the unknown world and the temptation of high profits have made the Atlantic shipping more busy, and the slave trade ships to and from Europe, Africa and the Americas have brought a lot of wealth to Europe, especially Western European countries.

西方地理学的伟大发现推动了大航海时代的到来,地中海沿岸经济中心的地位悄然发生了变化。探索未知世界的渴望和高额利润的诱惑使大西洋航运更加繁忙,往返欧洲,非洲和美洲的奴隶贸易船给欧洲特别是西欧国家带来了很多财富。

The economic center of the Western world has gradually shifted from the Mediterranean coast to the east coast of the Atlantic Ocean. Western European countries represented by Spain, Portugal, France, and the United Kingdom gradually replaced southern European countries Italy and Greece and became the new center of Western civilization.

西方世界的经济中心已逐渐从地中海沿岸转移到大西洋东岸。以西班牙,葡萄牙,法国和英国为代表的西欧国家逐渐取代了南欧国家意大利和希腊,成为西方文明的新中心。

The prosperity of Atlantic trade has driven the development of Western Europe and North America. The traditional Eurasian trade through the Mediterranean and the Middle East has been relatively weakened. The powerhouses in the Middle East (Ottomans) are the losers in this transition, but hubs like Gibraltar and Istanbul are still crucial (View in horizontal screen)▼

大西洋贸易的繁荣推动了西欧和北美的发展。通过地中海和中东的传统欧亚贸易已相对减弱。中东(奥斯曼帝国)的强国是这一过渡的失败者,但直布罗陀和伊斯坦布尔等枢纽仍然至关重要(在水平屏幕中查看)▼

But it is undeniable that in the early days of the great voyage, civilizations along the Mediterranean still had the first-mover advantage. The sailing knowledge of Arabs and Italians provided valuable experience for Western European navigators, and most of the navigators who first started the pace of exploring the world came from countries around the Mediterranean.

但是不可否认的是,在大航行的初期,地中海沿岸的文明仍然具有先发优势。阿拉伯人和意大利人的航海知识为西欧航海家提供了宝贵的经验,大多数最早开始探索世界的航海家来自地中海沿岸的国家。

For example, Columbus’s hometown is Genoa, Italy (Da Gama and Magellan are Portuguese) (Spain-Seville Cathedral-Tomb of Columbus) (Photo from: Hans C. Schrodter / Shutterstock)▼

例如,哥伦布的故乡是意大利的热那亚(达加马和麦哲伦是葡萄牙语)(西班牙-塞维利亚大教堂-哥伦布墓)(图片来源:汉斯·施罗德/ Shutterstock)▼

Although the era of great navigation shifted the focus of the European economy to Western European countries, this prosperity also drove the demand for North-South trade in Europe. Before the advent of railways, water transport was still the most effective mode of transportation.

尽管大航海时代将欧洲经济的重心转移到西欧国家,但这种繁荣也推动了欧洲对南北贸易的需求。在铁路出现之前,水运仍是最有效的运输方式。

Before the completion of the Suez Canal, a narrow Strait of Gibraltar was the only passage from the Mediterranean and Black Sea coastal countries to the Atlantic coast. Its strategic significance is self-evident. It can be said that mastering the Strait of Gibraltar is tantamount to choking the throats of the countries on the Mediterranean coast leading to the ocean.

在苏伊士运河完工之前,直布罗陀海峡是从地中海和黑海沿岸国家到大西洋沿岸的唯一通道。其战略意义不言而喻。可以说,掌握直布罗陀海峡无异于扼杀了通向海洋的地中海沿岸国家的喉咙。

After the opening of the Suez Canal, the Eastern route once again returned to the Mediterranean, and the importance of the Strait of Gibraltar has also increased (picture from: shipmap)▼

苏伊士运河开通后,东部路线再次回到地中海,直布罗陀海峡的重要性也有所提高(图片来自:shipmap)▼

After the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, the Strait of Gibraltar became an important route to Southern Europe, North Africa and the Indian Ocean via the Atlantic Ocean. With the later development of oil fields in the Persian Gulf, the Gibraltar route became the lifeline of energy transportation in Western Europe. Thousands of ships pass through the strait every day, up to 100,000 ships per year, making it one of the busiest passages in international shipping.

1869年苏伊士运河开通后,直布罗陀海峡成为通过大西洋通往南欧,北非和印度洋的重要路线。随着波斯湾油田的发展,直布罗陀航线成为西欧能源运输的生命线。每天有成千上万的船只通过海峡,每年多达100,000艘,这使其成为国际航运中最繁忙的通道之一。

Ships passing through Gibraltar, it looks like some are from the Middle East (picture from: artba_nwh / Shutterstock)▼

船只经过直布罗陀,看起来有些是从中东来的(图片来自:artba_nwh / Shutterstock)▼

The Strait of Gibraltar has been a battleground for military strategists since ancient times, as can be seen from its name. Gibraltar is derived from Arabic. At the beginning of the 8th century, the Umayyad Arab dynasty launched a conquest war. During the war, the Umayyad general Tariq Ziad led 7,300 soldiers across the Strait of Gibraltar. Tariq stood on the Gibraltar Peninsula. Commanding the battle on the huge rock, it defeated the Visigothic kingdom that ruled Spain at that time and had several times its own strength.

从其名称可以看出,自古以来,直布罗陀海峡就一直是军事战略家的战场。直布罗陀源自阿拉伯语。在八世纪初,阿拉伯的乌马耶德王朝发动了征服战争。战争期间,乌马亚德将军塔里克·齐亚德(Tariq Ziad)带领7,300名士兵穿越直布罗陀海峡。塔里克站在直布罗陀半岛上。它在这块巨大的岩石上指挥着战斗,击败了当时统治西班牙的西哥特王国,并拥有自己几倍的实力。

Although the Arab Empire was blocked by Byzantium in the east, it took the Iberian Peninsula from North Africa by crossing the sea. This is also the most powerful period in the history of the Islamic world against the Christian world▼

尽管阿拉伯帝国在东部被拜占庭所阻挡,但它还是通过北海从北非占领了伊比利亚半岛。这也是伊斯兰世界对抗基督教世界历史上最强大的时期▼

To commemorate the victory of this cross-sea operation, the strait that Tariq crossed is called the "Strait of Zhibur Tariq", which means mountain in Arabic. Later, the Arabs withdrew from the place, but the name remained. After translation in many languages, "Gibraltar" became the name of the Strait.

为了纪念这项跨海行动的胜利,塔里克(Tariq)越过的海峡被称为“芝伯塔里克海峡(Shibur Tariq)”,在阿拉伯语中是指山。后来,阿拉伯人撤出该地,但名字仍然存在。经过多种语言的翻译,“直布罗陀”成为海峡的名称。

The "Gibraltar Rock" on the coast is the most spectacular of the "Pillars of Hercules" (picture from: Andreas Poertner / Shutterstock)▼

海岸上的“直布罗陀岩”是“大力神之柱”中最壮观的(图片来自:安德烈亚斯·珀特纳/ Shutterstock)▼

At present, Port Huron and Cape Marokie belong to Spain. The most important strategic significance of the Gibraltar peninsula, where Tariq commanded combat, Britain and Spain both claimed sovereignty over it. However, 93% of the residents on the peninsula have British nationality and are actually controlled by the United Kingdom.

目前,休伦港和马罗基角属于西班牙。塔里克指挥作战的直布罗陀半岛最重要的战略意义是英国和西班牙都对其拥有主权。但是,该半岛上93%的居民具有英国国籍,实际上是由英国控制的。

In fact, the Gibraltar peninsula is only a small part of the coast of the strait, but if it is from the United Kingdom, it seems to be a nail wedged to Spain (picture from Aitor Serra Martin / Shutterstock.)▼

实际上,直布罗陀半岛只是海峡沿岸的一小部分,但是如果它来自英国,那似乎是钉在西班牙的钉子上(图片来自Aitor Serra Martin / Shutterstock。)▼

Spain’s history of losing the Gibraltar Peninsula can also be said to be the history of the replacement of Western maritime hegemonies.

西班牙失去直布罗陀半岛的历史也可以说是取代西方海上霸权的历史。

As one of the first countries to initiate colonial plunder, Spain accumulated a large amount of wealth in the 16th century and opened the era of maritime hegemony belonging to the Spanish Empire.

作为最早进行殖民掠夺的国家之一,西班牙在16世纪积累了大量财富,并开启了属于西班牙帝国的海上霸权时代。

Spain did have a great first-mover advantage during the colonial era. The colonies controlled by Spain often produced high-priced cash crops, which brought more wealth to the royal family than the British and French colonies in North America.

在殖民时代,西班牙确实拥有巨大的先发优势。西班牙控制的殖民地经常生产高价的经济作物,这给王室带来了比北美的英国和法国殖民地更多的财富。

The most symbolic of its status is the Spanish Armada at the end of the 16th century. The fleet has more than 150 warships, more than 3,000 artillery pieces and tens of thousands of skilled naval soldiers. At its peak, the fleet has more than a thousand ships. This invincible fleet sailed in the Mediterranean and Atlantic waters to escort Spanish merchant ships. At the end of the 16th century, 83% of the world's precious metal mining was earned by Spain, and the limelight was the same.

它的地位最具象征意义的是16世纪末的西班牙舰队。舰队拥有150多艘军舰,3,000多个火炮件和成千上万的熟练海军士兵。在鼎盛时期,该船队拥有一千多艘船。这支无敌的舰队在地中海和大西洋海域航行,护航西班牙商船。到16世纪末,西班牙赚取了全球83%的贵金属矿产,风头也一样。

Of course, Spain’s precious metals came from the plundering of resources in the New World, and along with slavery-like exploitation of the local indigenous people, there was no returning fleet to escort, fearing that every ship would be taken away by British and French pirates (Bolivia-Potosi Silver Mine) ) (Picture from: Inc/Shutterstock)▼

当然,西班牙的贵金属来自新世界的资源掠夺,加上奴隶制对当地土著人民的剥削,没有返回的护航舰队护送,他们担心每艘船都会被英法两国夺走。海盗(玻利维亚-波托西银矿))(图片来自:Inc / Shutterstock)▼

Just as the Spanish royal family relied on the wealth it had seized in the colonies and desperate for extravagance, Britain, lonely outside the European continent, was experiencing a series of revolutionary historical events. A group of emerging bourgeoisie emerged in Britain, which has accumulated a lot of capital through overseas trade. They consolidate their wealth by buying land in Britain. A large number of farmers are forced to leave their land and enter workshops to become handicraft practitioners.

正如西班牙王室依靠其在殖民地中夺取的财富而拼命追求奢侈一样,孤独地在欧洲大陆之外的英国正在经历一系列革命性的历史事件。英国涌现出一批新兴资产阶级,他们通过海外贸易积累了大量资本。他们通过在英国购买土地来巩固自己的财富。许多农民被迫离开自己的土地,进入作坊成为手工业者。

Enclose more land, raise more sheep, gather more wool, and then send it to the workshop for processing and sell it to the generous Spaniards..., and Spain itself is rich in wool, but it gives away the industrial opportunities ( British ranch, picture from: Jeff BaumgartIn/Shutterstock)▼

围拢更多的土地,饲养更多的绵羊,收集更多的羊毛,然后将其发送到车间进行加工,然后出售给慷慨的西班牙人...西班牙本身拥有丰富的羊毛,但它却提供了工业机会(英国牧场) ,图片来自:Jeff BaumgartIn / Shutterstock)▼

British society is changing rapidly, and it has also begun to challenge Spanish authority in Europe.

英国社会瞬息万变,它也开始挑战西班牙在欧洲的权威。

From the end of the 16th century to the early part of the 17th century, the old overlord Spain launched five wars against Britain, the emerging sea power country, while Britain united the Netherlands and pirate forces to resist, and did not allow the Spanish invincible fleet to take advantage.

从16世纪末到17世纪初,古老的霸主西班牙对新兴的海上强国英国发动了五次战争,而英国则联合荷兰和海盗部队进行抵抗,并且不允许西班牙立于不败之地。充分利用机队。

At that time, the naval battle was already an artillery battle. This level of war in the Indian Ocean can indeed crush the Arabs (modern Spanish Invincible Fleet replica) (picture from: McCarthy's PhotoWorks/Shutterstock)▼

当时,海战已经是炮战。印度洋的这场战争确实可以摧毁阿拉伯人(西班牙现代无敌舰队的复制品)(图片来源:麦卡锡的PhotoWorks / Shutterstock)▼

Although the result of the war was both defeats, Spain's decline appeared in the war, and the decline of a huge empire had begun. In 1700, King Carlos II of Spain died. The old king was sterile for life. It became a question of who would inherit the Spanish throne.

尽管战争的结果都是两次失败,但是西班牙的衰败出现在战争中,一个庞大帝国的衰落已经开始。 1700年,西班牙国王卡洛斯二世去世。老国王终生不育。这成为了谁将继承西班牙王位的问题。

The highly recognizable Carlos II, the last Spanish king of the Habsburg dynasty (picture from: wikipedia)▼

举世公认的卡洛斯二世,哈布斯堡王朝的最后一位西班牙国王(图片来自:维基百科)▼

In modern history, European royal families have had blood ties with each other due to frequent marriages, and the three heirs who were eligible to inherit the throne from Carlos II at that time happened to be foreign princes.

在现代历史上,欧洲皇室家族由于频繁的婚姻而有血缘关系,而当时有资格从卡洛斯二世继承王位的三个继承人恰好是外国王子。

Carlos II’s will was to make his grand-nephew and cousin Philip, grandson of French King Louis XIV, as his successor. This move was strongly opposed by countries such as Austria, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom, because if Philip became the king of Spain, France and Spain, the two most powerful countries on the European continent, would be co-hosted, and it would be very difficult for neighboring countries to rise again. .

卡洛斯二世(Carlos II)的遗嘱是让他的侄子和表弟腓力(Philip)继任法国国王路易十四。此举遭到奥地利,荷兰和英国等国家的强烈反对,因为如果菲利普成为西班牙,法国和西班牙的国王,欧洲大陆上两个最强大的国家将被共同主办,邻国再次崛起将是非常困难的。 。

In Europe in 1700, Spain's territories included not only modern Spain but also the territories of Italy and Flanders. If it were merged with France, it would undoubtedly seriously break the balance of power in Europe (picture from: wikipedia

在1700年的欧洲,西班牙的领土不仅包括现代西班牙,还包括意大利和法兰德斯的领土。如果与法国合并,无疑将严重破坏欧洲的力量平衡(图片来自:维基百科)

These countries support Prince Charles of Habsburg, Austria, who is the nephew of the old King Carlos II and has certain inheritance legitimacy. The contradictions between the two sides were irreconcilable, and the Spanish throne war officially kicked off.

这些国家支持奥地利哈布斯堡王朝的查尔斯王子,后者是旧卡洛斯二世国王的侄子,具有一定的继承合法性。两国之间的矛盾是不可调和的,西班牙王位战争正式拉开序幕。

In the early days of the war, the British and Dutch forces were victorious. The British made precise attacks on Gibraltar in southern Spain, forming a north-south attack on the French and Spanish forces, severely injuring the Spanish and French fleets. However, the powerful army France managed to drag the war into a stalemate.

战争初期,英国和荷兰军队取得了胜利。英军对西班牙南部的直布罗陀进行了精确攻击,对法国和西班牙部队进行了南北攻击,严重伤害了西班牙和法国的舰队。但是,强大的法国军队设法使战争陷入了僵局。

Naval warfare is a bottomless pit of money, land warfare is a bottomless pit of human life, the British-Dutch fleet wins at sea, and the French dominate on land (picture from: wikipedia

海军战争是金钱的无底深渊,陆地战争是人类的无底深渊,英荷舰队在海上获胜,法国人在陆地上占主导地位(图片来自:维基百科

The war dragged on for 13 years, and years of losses left the people of all countries impoverished. Russia in the East was secretly accumulating power and rising. In the end, Britain, France, West Holland and other countries could only shake hands and formally sign the Utrecht Peace Treaty in 1713.

战争持续了13年,多年的损失使所有国家的人民陷入贫困。东方的俄罗斯正在秘密地积累力量和崛起。最后,英国,法国,西荷兰和其他国家只能握手,并在1713年正式签署《乌得勒支和平条约》。

The Peace Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 (picture from wikipedia)▼

1713年的乌得勒支和平条约(图片来自维基百科)▼

The content of the treaty was to recognize that Philip of France succeeded the king of Spain, but France also had to make a compromise and promise that the two countries would not merge. The Gibraltar peninsula became part of the compromise and became the territory of the British Empire.

条约的内容是承认法国的菲利普接任西班牙国王,但法国也必须作出妥协,并承诺两国不会合并。直布罗陀半岛成为妥协的一部分,并成为大英帝国的领土。

Gibraltar flag and the British flag (picture from DorSteffen/Shutterstock)▼

直布罗陀国旗和英国国旗(图片来自DorSteffen / Shutterstock)▼

However, although the British claimed that they had won the rights and interests of the peninsula that year, in fact, the Utrecht Peace Treaty was ambiguous regarding the sovereignty of the Gibraltar peninsula. The treaty stipulated that the British Empire had ownership of houses and military installations on the peninsula. Rather than sovereignty in the modern political sense. Therefore, successive Spanish governments have claimed sovereignty over the Gibraltar Peninsula.

但是,尽管英国人声称当年他们赢得了半岛的权利和利益,但实际上,《乌得勒支和平条约》在直布罗陀半岛的主权方面含糊不清。该条约规定,大英帝国拥有半岛上的房屋和军事设施。而不是现代政治意义上的主权。因此,历届西班牙政府都对直布罗陀半岛拥有主权。

Find a world map on hand

查找手上的世界地图

After Gibraltar is "(British Occupied)" and Ceuta on the other side of the Strait is behind "(West)"▼

直布罗陀之后是“(英国占领)”,海峡对岸的休达在“(西方)”之后▼

In the three hundred years after the signing of the contract, Spain has repeatedly united with France and other countries to launch military, economic, and diplomatic means to regain this piece of land that held the throat of Europe and Africa.

在签订合同后的三百年中,西班牙反复与法国和其他国家联合,发动军事,经济和外交手段,夺回了这片席卷欧洲和非洲的土地。

But the declining Spain can no longer compete with the flourishing empire.

但是,衰落的西班牙无法再与繁荣的帝国竞争。

Since the British occupied this strategic location, it has spent a lot of energy building it into a stable springboard into the Mediterranean. Not only established naval and air bases, built a large number of fortifications, but also expelled the original Spanish residents, and attracted a large number of immigrants from Britain, Italy, and Morocco through preferential policies to enrich the local population.

自从英国占领了这一战略要地以来,它已花费大量精力将其建设成通往地中海的稳定跳板。不仅建立了海军和空军基地,建立了大量的防御工事,而且驱逐了西班牙的原始居民,并通过优惠政策吸引了大批来自英国,意大利和摩洛哥的移民,以丰富当地人口。

The Gibraltar peninsula is actually very small, and most of it is mountainous. A strong fortress is built on the mountain, backed by the mountain and facing the sea, easy to defend and difficult to attack (of course, it must have sea power) (picture from Cmspic/Shutterstock)▼

直布罗陀半岛实际上很小,并且大多数是山区。一座坚固的堡垒建在山上,背靠山峦,面朝大海,易于防御和进攻(当然,它必须具有海上力量)(图片来自Cmspic / Shutterstock)▼

In 1727, Spain surrounded Gibraltar with 25,000 troops and a large fleet. At that time, there were only 5,000 British defenders on the peninsula. Retired the Spanish army.

1727年,西班牙以25,000名士兵和一支庞大的舰队包围了直布罗陀。当时,半岛上只有5,000名英国后卫。退役西班牙军队。

Gibraltar, the Moorish castle built on the mountainside, the question is, what is the relationship between this castle and the Moors? (Picture from: Raimundo79/Shutterstock)▼

直布罗陀,摩尔人的城堡建在山腰上,问题是,这座城堡与摩尔人之间是什么关系? (图片来自:Raimundo79 / Shutterstock)▼

When the War of Independence broke out in the United States, the Spaniards got another chance to regain Gibraltar. With the support of France, the Spanish government dispatched 35,000 heavy troops, 47 warships, and more than one hundred heavy artillery pieces to siege Gibraltar, which was only guarded by 7,000 British troops, for 3 years and 7 months.

当美国独立战争爆发时,西班牙人又获得了重新获得直布罗陀的机会。在法国的支持下,西班牙政府出动了35,000名重型部队,47艘军舰和100多个重型火炮,以包围仅由7,000名英国部队守卫的直布罗陀,历时3年零7个月。

The Spaniards were full of ambition, but soon discovered that the landmark on the peninsula, the Giant Rock of Gibraltar, was already densely covered with bunkers and artillery, as if this natural creation had become a killing machine for the British army. This time the Spanish army still did not recover the lost ground.

西班牙人满怀野心,但很快发现半岛上的地标直布罗陀巨岩已经被掩体和炮兵所覆盖,仿佛这种自然创造物已成为英军的杀戮机器。这次西班牙军队仍然没有恢复失地。

British soldiers defending the fortress of Gibraltar (modern model) (picture from: Fabio Michele Capelli / Shutterstock)▼

保卫直布罗陀堡垒的英国士兵(现代模型)(图片来自:法比奥·米歇尔·卡佩利/ Shutterstock)▼

Today, the immigrants recruited by the British in Gibraltar have lived here for hundreds of years. Most of them speak English, hold British passports and agree with British rule.

今天,英国人在直布罗陀招募的移民已经在这里生活了数百年。他们中的大多数人会说英语,持有英国护照并同意英国的统治。

The local recognition of the United Kingdom is still very strong (picture from: JUAN ANTONIO ORIHUELA / Shutterstock)▼

英国对当地的认可度仍然很高(图片来自:JUAN ANTONIO ORIHUELA / Shutterstock)▼

In addition to the construction of military facilities, the British also built power stations, telephone systems, meat cold storage, desalination systems, food processing plants and hospitals on the small 6.5 square kilometers of land.

除了建造军事设施外,英国还在6.5平方公里的土地上建造了发电站,电话系统,肉类冷藏库,海水淡化系统,食品加工厂和医院。

After the end of World War II, the world political structure changed. Europe, which was struggling for survival between the two giants of the United States and the Soviet Union, became united in the last century, and the relationship between Britain and Spain gradually eased. In February 1985, the Western government announced the opening of the borders of Gibraltar and the land and sea passages between the western mainland and Gibraltar, and the United Kingdom announced that it gave the Spaniards the right to work, live and purchase real estate in Gibraltar.

第二次世界大战结束后,世界政治格局发生了变化。在美国和苏联的两个巨人之间为生存而挣扎的欧洲,在上个世纪团结起来,英国和西班牙之间的关系逐渐缓和。 1985年2月,西方政府宣布开放直布罗陀边界以及西部大陆和直布罗陀之间的陆地和海洋通道,英国宣布赋予西班牙人工作,居住和购买直布罗陀房地产的权利。

Welcome to buy a house, welcome to play (picture from: MikhailBerkut/Shutterstock)▼

欢迎买房,欢迎玩(图片来自:MikhailBerkut / Shutterstock)▼

On March 18, 1991, the British withdrew their army from the last battalion stationed in Gibraltar and officially handed over Gibraltar’s defense to a team composed of locals, thus ending the British military presence in this area for 287 years. Gibraltar The road to autonomy.

1991年3月18日,英军从驻扎​​在直布罗陀的最后一个营撤出军队,并正式将直布罗陀的防御权移交给了一支由当地人组成的小组,从而使英国在该地区的军事存在结束了287年。直布罗陀通往自主之路。

Britain and the West had negotiated on the sovereignty of the Gibraltar Peninsula and discussed the implementation of British and Western joint management in the area. But this news was strongly opposed by the residents of Gibraltar. In the follow-up referendum, 98% of the locals opposed the acceptance of Spanish management.

英国和西方就直布罗陀半岛的主权问题进行了谈判,并讨论了该地区英国和西方联合管理的实施。但是,这一消息遭到直布罗陀居民的强烈反对。在后续的全民公决中,98%的当地人反对接受西班牙人的管理。

You can take a look, but not "return" (picture from: PauloBittes/Shutterstock)▼

您可以看一下,但不能“返回”(图片来自:PauloBittes / Shutterstock)▼

However, the situation has undergone some changes after Brexit: 96% of voters in Gibraltar chose to stay in the European Union, and there was a serious conflict with mainstream public opinion in Britain. The Spanish government wanted to take this opportunity to mention Anglo-Spanish co-management, but the Chief Minister of Gibraltar responded: "There is no room for talks on the sovereignty of Gibraltar, and even dialogue is impossible."

然而,英国退欧后,情况发生了一些变化:直布罗陀96%的选民选择了留在欧盟,并且与英国主流舆论存在严重冲突。西班牙政府想借此机会提及盎格鲁-西班牙共同管理,但直布罗陀首席部长回答说:“关于直布罗陀主权的讨论没有空间,甚至对话是不可能的。”

On the side of Spain, there is the Spanish flag, and on the other side, the flags of the United Kingdom, Gibraltar, and the European Union (picture from: JBenny Marty / Shutterstock)▼

西班牙的一面是西班牙国旗,另一面是英国,直布罗陀和欧洲联盟的国旗(图片来自:JBenny Marty / Shutterstock)▼

It has been more than three hundred years since leaving this land, and the language and customs are completely different. Spain wants to take it back, I am afraid it is already a delusion. But as a strategic location, the Moorish, Arab, and Spaniard regimes on the Gibraltar Peninsula have come and gone. The history of expulsion and deportation has been repeating itself. How long can the British rule last?

离开这片土地已有300多年了,语言和习俗完全不同。西班牙想收回它,恐怕已经是一种幻想。但是,作为战略要地,直布罗陀半岛上的摩尔人,阿拉伯人和西班牙政权来了又去了。驱逐出境的历史一直在重演。英国统治能持续多久?

 
 
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